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Adv Exp Med Biol


Coronary Artery Disease: From Mechanism to Clinical Practice.


Shao C, Wang J, Tian J, Tang Y-da
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020; 1177:1-36.
PMID: 32246442.


In most developed countries, coronary artery disease (CAD), mostly caused by atherosclerosis of coronary arteries, is one of the primary causes of death. From 1990s to 2000s, mortality caused by acute MI declined up to 50%. The incidence of CAD is related with age, gender, economic, etc. Atherosclerosis contains some highly correlative processes such as lipid disturbances, thrombosis, inflammation, vascular smooth cell activation, remodeling, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, altered matrix metabolism, and genetic factors. Risk factors of CAD exist among many individuals of the general population, which includes hypertension, lipids and lipoproteins metabolism disturbances, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, age, genders, lifestyle, cigarette smoking, diet, obesity, and family history. Angina pectoris is caused by myocardial ischemia in the main expression of pain in the chest or adjoining area, which is usually a result of exertion and related to myocardial function disorder. Typical angina pectoris would last for minutes with gradual exacerbation. Rest, sit, or stop walking are the usual preference for patients with angina, and reaching the maximum intensity in seconds is uncommon. Rest or nitroglycerin usage can relieve typical angina pectoris within minutes. So far, a widely accepted angina pectoris severity grading system included CCS (Canadian Cardiovascular Society) classification, Califf score, and Goldman scale. Patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) may have different symptoms and signs of both severe angina pectoris and various complications. The combination of rising usage of sensitive MI biomarkers and precise imaging techniques, including electrocardiograph (ECG), computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, made the new MI criteria necessary. Complications of acute myocardial infarction include left ventricular dysfunction, cardiogenic shock, structural complications, arrhythmia, recurrent chest discomfort, recurrent ischemia and infarction, pericardial effusion, pericarditis, post-myocardial infarction syndrome, venous thrombosis pulmonary embolism, left ventricular aneurysm, left ventricular thrombus, and arterial embolism.