Spinal cord dorsal horn srGAP3 increases in the initiation phase of neuropathic pain and decreases in the maintenance phase. However, Rac1 activity which can be reduced by srGAP3, decreased in the initiation phase and increased in the maintenance phase. The increased srGAP3 in the initiation phase promotes new immature dendritic spines instigating neuropathic pain. Decreased srGAP3 in the maintenance phase enhances Rac1 activity facilitating maturation of dendritic spines and the persistence of neuropathic pain. srGAP3 siRNA can ameliorate neuropathic pain only when administrated in the initiation phase. The Rac1 inhibitor can ameliorate neuropathic pain only when administrated in the maintenance phase. Combined targeting of srGAP3 in the initiation phase and Rac1 in the maintenance phase can produce optimal analgesic efficacy.