Migraine and sleep disorders in children exhibit a bidirectional relationship. This relationship is based on shared pathophysiology. Migraine involves activation of the trigeminal vascular system. Nociceptive neurons that innervate the dura release various vasoactive peptides. Calcitonin gene-related peptide is the most active of these peptides. Neural pathways that are involved in sleep generation are divided into those responsible for circadian rhythm, wake promotion, non-rapid eye movement, and rapid eye movement sleep activation. Sleep state switches are a critical component of these systems. The cerebral structures, networks, and neurochemical systems that are involved in migraine align closely with those responsible for the regulation of sleep. Neurochemical systems that are involved with both the pathogenesis of migraine and regulation of sleep include adenosine, melatonin, orexin, and calcitonin gene-related peptide. Sleep disorders represent the most common comorbidity with migraine in childhood. The prevalence of parasomnias, obstructive sleep apnea, and sleep-related movement disorders is significantly greater in children migraineurs. Infantile colic is a precursor of childhood migraine. Treatment of comorbid sleep disorders is important for the appropriate management of children with migraine. Sleep-based behavioral interventions can be of substantial benefit. These interventions are particularly important in children due to limited evidence for effective migraine pharmacotherapy.