Our previous findings indicate that HCN2 contributes to oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain, but the mechanisms underlying the development of neuropathic pain are still unclear. Here, we found that the rat HCN2 levels significantly increased after high-frequency stimulation-induced long-term potentiation (LTP). Spinal local application of ZD7288 (a cyclic-nucleotide-gated-channel-specific inhibitor) prevented LTP induction after intraperitoneal injection of oxaliplatin. In addition, oxaliplatin administration induced spinal LTP via activation of the CaMKII-CREB cascade in the rat spinal dorsal horn. Moreover, we found that administration of oxaliplatin significantly increased the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents and the number of action potentials, but these effects were attenuated by pretreatment with either CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 or NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981. An increase in the phosphorylation of spinal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 1 (NR1) after oxaliplatin administration was weakened by ZD7288 pretreatment. Administration of noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 blocked oxaliplatin-evoked CaMKII-CREB cascade activation and prevented HCN2-mediated spinal-LTP induction in vitro and suppressed neuropathic-pain behaviors of rats. All these data suggest that HCN2 contributes to the development of neuropathic pain by inducing spinal LTP via activation of NMDA receptor-mediated CaMKII signaling.