Cyclic vomiting syndrome is an idiopathic chronic periodic disorder of childhood which may persist into the adult years. Although cyclic vomiting syndrome is considered a central nervous system disorder, it is often managed by a pediatric gastroenterologist. The practitioner should not assume a gastrointestinal or non-neurological cause of symptoms especially if there are coexisting neurological symptoms and signs or if vomiting does not bring relief; this suggests a possible central nervous system cause, which may necessitate a pediatric neurology consultation. Examples of central nervous system causes of cyclic vomiting syndrome that can have subjective and objective neurological findings include abdominal migraine, certain types of epilepsy, structural lesions (tumors, Chiari malformation, demyelinating disease), mitochondrial disease, autonomic disorders, fatty acid/organic acid disorders, urea cycle defects, and cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Improved familiarity with cyclic vomiting syndrome and its mimics may improve the time to appropriate diagnosis and may reduce morbidity related to cyclic vomiting syndrome.