Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) plays an important role in pain and inflammatory responses. Previous studies have shown that the expression of TRPV1 increases in the sensory neurons of the esophagus during the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophagitis, but the response of TRPV1 in esophageal epithelial cells (EECs), which directly confront the refluxed acid, is still unknown. Here, we found that acid reflux triggered esophageal damage, which was accompanied by increased expression of TRPV1 in EECs and TRPV1 channel activity in these cells. Furthermore, menthol inhibited the Ca influx induced by acid stimulation in EECs. After menthol treatment, the expression of TRPV1 in EECs was significantly reduced, and their hyperplasia was significantly reduced; finally, the inflammation pathway elicited in EECs was diminished in mice with acid reflux. These results suggest that menthol improves the clinical symptoms caused by gastroesophageal acid reflux by interfering with TRPV1 in EECs.