Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain state that is heterogeneous in nature and caused by the consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system. Current medications give a long-lasting pain relief only in a limited percentage of patients also associated with numerous side effects. Stem cell transplantation is one of the attractive therapeutic platforms for the treatment of a variety of diseases such as neuropathic pain. Here, the authors review the therapeutic effects of stem cell transplantation of different origin and species in different models of neuropathic pain disorders. Stem cell transplantation could alleviate the neuropathic pain; indeed, stem cells are the source of cells, which differentiate into a variety of cell types and lead trophic factors to migrate to the lesion site opposing the effects of damage. In conclusion, this review suggests that stem cell therapy can be a novel approach for the treatment of neuropathic pain.