Health-related quality of life in chronic low back pain (LBP) is an important issue since various individual factors such as perceived loss of autonomy, inability to continue daily life and anxiety can contribute to maintenance or deterioration of this condition. Health-related quality of life is also important because it can predict the probability of recovery or recrudescence over time. In the literature, there is no systematic review on this topic. The present paper describes a protocol of the first systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at summarising the data on health-related quality of life in patients with chronic LBP compared with healthy controls. Gender, age and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders (mood or anxiety disorders) will be explored as moderators. Studies will be included if they used a case-control design comparing adults with chronic LBP to healthy controls on health-related quality of life through validated interviews/questionnaires.