Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a highly prevalent group of heterogeneous disorders, and their diagnostic criteria are symptom-based, with the absence of anatomical and biochemical abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic visceral symptoms are common both in patients with an identifiable organic disease but also in FGID patients. Patients suffering from upper gastrointestinal functional disorders typically present with various symptoms such as early satiety, postprandial fullness, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain. Considering their increasing prevalence, difficulties in diagnosis, and low quality of life, FGIDs have become an emerging problem in gastroenterology. We aimed to provide an updated summary of pathways involved in visceral sensitization. We examined the recent literature searching for evidence of the most important studies about the mechanisms underlying gastrointestinal symptom generation and sensitization.