Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is widely prescribed for treating gastroenterological cancer. L-OHP-induced peripheral neuropathy is a critical toxic effect that limits the dosage of L-OHP. An ideal chemotherapeutic strategy that does not result in severe peripheral neuropathy but confers high anticancer efficacy has not been established. To establish an optimal evidence-based dosing regimen, a pharmacokinetic-toxicodynamic (PK-TD) model that can characterize the relationship between drug administration regimen and L-OHP-induced peripheral neuropathy is required. We developed a PK-TD model of L-OHP for peripheral neuropathy using Phoenix NLME™ Version 8.1. Plasma concentration of L-OHP, the number of withdrawal responses in the acetone test, and the threshold value in the von Frey test following 3, 5, or 8 mg/kg L-OHP administration were used. The PK-TD model consisting of an indirect response model and a transit compartment model adequately described and simulated time-course alterations of onset and grade of L-OHP-induced cold and mechanical allodynia. The results of model analysis suggested that individual fluctuation of plasma L-OHP concentration might be a more important factor for individual variability of neuropathy than cell sensitivity to L-OHP. The current PK-TD model might contribute to investigation and establishment of an optimal dosing strategy that can reduce L-OHP-induced neuropathy.