Renal disease is a common complication experienced by patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), though the epidemiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) in paediatric patients and its impact on long-term renal outcomes is unclear. We utilized the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) to identify inpatient encounters of paediatric patients with SCD admitted for vaso-occlusive pain crisis (VOC). Overall, 1·4% of patients experienced at least one episode of AKI and 2·5% of admissions were complicated by AKI. Patients with at least one episode of AKI were more likely to be adolescents or young adults at the time of their initial admission, had increased rates of admission to the ICU, longer lengths of stay, increased costs of hospitalization, increased risk of readmission and increased rates of SCD-related comorbidities. Generalized estimating equation modelling demonstrated that increasing age, history of hypertension, history of haematuria and history of chronic kidney disease were associated with increased odds of developing AKI, though hydroxycarbamide use (OR 0·64, 95% CI 0·44-0·94) was protective. Episodes of AKI during hospitalization in children with SCD are associated with increased morbidity and utilization of hospital resources. Increasing the use of hydroxycarbamide may decrease the likelihood of this complication.