Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease accompanied by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. The aim of this study was to investigate whether puerarin, one of the main components of the root of Pueraria lobata, exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects against UC. To examine the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of puerarin against colitis, we used a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Administration of puerarin alleviated colon shortening, pathological damage to the colon, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Puerarin significantly inhibited inflammation through the down-regulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators. Moreover, puerarin showed anti-oxidative effects through the regulation of the expression of the NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway and antioxidant enzymes. Puerarin inhibited intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction by increasing the expression of tight junction proteins. These results suggest that puerarin has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in the mouse model of colitis.