One of the most significant challenges facing investigators, laboratory animal veterinarians, and IACUCs, is how to balanceappropriate analgesic use, animal welfare, and analgesic impact on experimental results. This is particularly true for in vivo studies on immune system function and inflammatory disease. Often times the effects of analgesic drugs on a particular immune function or model are incomplete or don't exist. Further complicating the picture is evidence of the very tight integration and bidirectional functionality between the immune system and branches of the nervous system involved innociception and pain. These relationships have advanced the concept of understanding pain as a protective neuroimmune function and recognizing pathologic pain as a neuroimmune disease. This review strives to summarize extant literature onthe effects of pain and analgesia on immune system function and inflammation in the context of preclinical in vivo studies.The authors hope this work will help to guide selection of analgesics for preclinical studies of inflammatory disease and immune system function.