The aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive and unbiased understanding at the molecular correlates of peripheral nerve injury. In this study, we screened the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the DRG from rats using RNA-seq technique. Moreover, the bioinformatics methods were used to figure out the signaling pathways and expression regulation pattern of the DEGs enriched in. In addition, quantitative real-time RT-PCR was carried out to further confirm the expression of DEGs. 414 genes were upregulated, while 184 genes were downregulated in the DRG of rats 7 days after partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL) surgery. Moreover, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis suggested that most of the altered genes were involved in inflammatory responses and signaling transduction. In addition, our results state that they shared similar characters in the DRG among four types of neuropathic pain models. Eighteen genes have been altered (17 of them were upregulated) in the DRG of all four types of neuropathic pain models, in which Vgf, Atf3, Cd74, Gal, Jun, Npy, Serpina3n, and Hspb1 have been reported to be involved in neuropathic pain. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results further confirmed the mRNA expression levels of Vgf, Atf3, Cd74, Gal, Jun, Npy, Serpina3n, and Hspb1 in the DRG of rats with pSNL surgery. The present study suggested that these eight genes may play important roles in neuropathic pain, revealing that these genes might serve as therapeutic targets for neuropathic pain. Moreover, anti-inflammatory therapy might be an effective approach for neuropathic pain treatment and prevention.