It is increasingly recognized that chronic opioid use leads to maladaptive changes in the composition and localization of gut bacteria. Recently, this "opioid-induced dysbiosis" (OID) has been linked to antinociceptive tolerance development in preclinical models and may therefore identify promising targets for new opioid-sparing strategies. Such developments are critical to curb dose escalations in the clinical setting and combat the ongoing opioid epidemic. In this article, we review the existing literature that pertains to OID, including the current evidence regarding its qualitative nature, influence on antinociceptive tolerance, and future prospects. Perspective: This article reviews the current literature on opioid-induced dysbiosis (OID) of gut bacteria, including its qualitative nature, influence on antinociceptive tolerance, and future prospects. This work may help identify targets for new opioid-sparing strategies.