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Papers of the Week

2019 Oct 16




A Rare Case Report on Xanthogranulomatous Osteomyelitis of Hip Mimicking Tuberculosis and Review of Literature.


Pathak S, Gautam R, Pc P, Bagtharia P, Sharma A
Cureus. 2019 Oct 16; 11(10):e5921.
PMID: 31788379.


Xanthogranulomatous osteomyelitis (XO) is a rare chronic inflammatory process characterized by the presence of a large number of lipid-containing macrophages with lymphocytes and plasma cells. We present a case of XO of the hip in a 50-year-old woman with pain in the left hip for 28 months. The patient had a history of taking anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy for five months. Laboratory data revealed an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Plain radiographs showed the destruction of the femoral head with arthritis and subluxation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was suggestive of tubercular infection of the left hip and a benign lesion in the left ilium. The histopathologic examination of the specimen demonstrated the presence of dead bone surrounded by lymph-plasma cells, foamy cells, and histocytes, which was consistent with XO, and culture was positive for infection. The patient was successfully treated with resection arthroplasty and antibiotics. It is important for the surgeons to keep XO in the list of differentials in cases with lytic lesions of bone and assessment should include microbiological culture along with the biopsy.