More than 300 million patients undergo surgery worldwide each year. Pain associated with these procedures is associated with short- and long-term negative sequelae for patients, healthcare providers, and healthcare systems. The following chapter is a review of the reality of postoperative pain management in everyday clinical routine based on survey- and registry-derived data with a focus on care in adults. Between 30% and up to 80% of patients report moderate to severe pain in the days after surgery. Structures, processes, and outcomes vary widely between hospitals and indicate gaps between evidence-based findings and practice. Pain assessment is not effectively implemented in many hospitals and should consider cultural differences. Few data exist on the situation of pain management in low- and middle-income countries, indicating lack of resources and available medication in many of these areas. Certain types of surgery as well as demographic and clinical factors are associated with increased risk of severe postoperative pain.