Neuropathic pain (NP) develops because of damage to the peripheral or central nervous system. It results in the hyperalgesia and allodynia. In the recent years, various researchers have studied the involvement of neuro-immune system in causing persistence of pain. The absence of synaptic contacts in the sensory ganglion makes them distinctive in terms of pain related signalling. In sensory ganglia, the neurotransmitters or the other modulators such as inflammatory substances produced by the ganglion cells, because of an injury, are responsible for the cross-excitation between neurons and neuron-glial interaction, thus affecting chemical transmission. This chemical transmission is considered mainly responsible for the chronicity and the persistent nature of neuropathic pain. This review examines the pain signalling due to neurotransmitter or cytokine release within the sensory ganglia. The specific areas focused on include: 1) the role of neurotransmitters released from the somata of sensory neurons in pain, 2) neuron-glia interaction and 3) role of cytokines in neuromodulation and pain.