Trigeminal neuropathic pain (TNP) remains a tremendous clinical challenge due to its elusive mechanisms. Previous studies showed that peripheral nerve injury facilitated a selective GABAergic neuronal apoptosis in the superficial dorsal horn and contributed to the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. It has also demonstrated that downregulation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome(APC/C) and its coactivator Cdh1 contribute to neuronal apoptosis in diverse neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether APC/C-Cdh1 downregulation could induce GABAergic neuronal apoptosis in trigeminal caudalis nucleus (Vc), and then contribute to the development and maintenance of TNP remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of APC/C-Cdh1 in a TNP rat model and its underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that Cdh1 was primarily distributed in superficial laminae of Vc and significantly downregulated in Vc at day 14 post trigeminal nerve injury. Furthermore, trigerminal nerve injury leads to neuronal apoptosis, especially GABAergic interneurons in the superficial of Vc. Upregulating Cdh1 in Vc ameliorated mechanical allodynia and inhibited GABAergic neuronal apoptosis induced by chronic constriction injury of trigeminal infraorbital nerve (CCI-ION).