Native Americans (NAs) have a higher prevalence of chronic pain than other U.S. racial/ethnic groups, but there have been few attempts to understand the mechanisms of this pain disparity. This study used a comprehensive battery of laboratory tasks to assess peripheral fiber function (cool/warm detection thresholds), pain sensitivity (eg, thresholds/tolerances), central sensitization (eg, temporal summation), and pain inhibition (conditioned pain modulation) in healthy, pain-free adults (N = 155 NAs, N = 150 non-Hispanic Whites [NHWs]). Multiple pain stimulus modalities were used (eg, cold, heat, pressure, ischemic, and electric), and subjective (eg, pain ratings and pain tolerance) and physiological (eg, nociceptive flexion reflex) outcomes were measured. There were no group differences on any measure, except that NAs had lower cold-pressor pain thresholds and tolerances, indicating greater pain sensitivity than NHWs. These findings suggest that there are no group differences between healthy NAs and NHWs on peripheral fiber function, central sensitization, or central pain inhibition, but NAs may have greater sensitivity to cold pain. Future studies are needed to examine potential within-group factors that might contribute to NA pain risk.