Chronic prostatitis / chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is commonly diagnosed in men younger than 50 years old. It is characterized by pelvic pain, voiding symptoms and sexual dysfunction. The considerable discomfort or pain experienced has a negative impact on the quality of life of patients and is a huge economic burden because of the high recurrence rate and the low cure rate. Appropriate animal models are essential for the development of new drugs for the treatment of CP/CPPS, and several rodent models induced by different methods and over different time frames have been established. This article reviews studies of three in vivo rodent models of prostatitis, namely, chemical-induced, autoimmune-induced and hormone-associated models reported by us and other investigators. Recent clinical investigation has suggested that tadalafil improves the International Prostatic Symptom Score and the total National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index score of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with CP/CPPS, which enables us to investigate the effect of tadalafil on the pelvic-pain-related behavior and prostatic inflammation in two of these prostatitis model types, experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) and hormone/castration-induced prostatitis (HCP). Both models showed the pelvic-pain-related behavior and prostatic inflammation that are characteristic of chronic prostatitis. In EAP, tadalafil suppressed both the pelvic-pain-related behavior and the prostatic inflammation. In HCP, tadalafil suppressed the pelvic-pain-related behavior. These results mimic the clinical findings. Therefore EAP and HCP are suitable for the evaluation of the potency of drugs for the treatment of CP/CPPS.