A 62-year-old Japanese woman developed numbness of the extremities and megaloblastic anemia. She had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy, whole-pelvis radiation therapy and chemotherapy for gynecological cancer 10 years before. Chronic abdominal pain, diarrhea and intermittent small-bowel obstruction had afflicted her for a long time. We diagnosed her with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia and polyneuropathy due to chronic radiation enteritis causing malabsorption. Vitamin B12 injections improved her numbness and anemia. The early diagnosis and treatment of deficiency of vitamin B12 are important. Physicians should regularly measure vitamin B12 levels and supplement vitamin B12 as needed in patients with chronic radiation enteritis.