Active research is being conducted on musculoskeletal pain, and recent concepts will help clinicians and researchers to develop better approaches: -the new pain taxonomy recently has been modified with a third descriptor with the concept of nociplastic pain. -the latest International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) includes an IASP task force that developed a new classification system for pain. In this new classification, one can differentiate primary musculoskeletal pain including fibromyalgia and low back pain and secondary musculoskeletal pain related to specific etiologies. -the concept of central sensitization in inflammatory rheumatic diseases is increasingly discussed. In these conditions, even with very active biological treatment, almost a third of patients are still complaining of persisting pain. These persisting pain states under adequate treatment, without any sign of inflammation, led researchers to look for evidence of central sensitization states.