Treatment of cancer‑induced bone pain (CIBP) is challenging in clinical settings. Oxycodone (OXY) is used to treat CIBP; however, a lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying CIBP limits the application of OXY. In the present study, all rats were randomly divided into three groups: The sham group, the CIBP group, and the OXY group. Then, a rat model of CIBP was established by inoculation of Walker 256 tumor cells from rat tibia. Phosphoproteomic profiling of the OXY‑treated spinal dorsal cords of rats with CIBP was performed, and 1,679 phosphorylated proteins were identified, of which 160 proteins were significantly different between the CIBP and sham groups, and 113 proteins were significantly different between the CIBP and OXY groups. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these proteins mainly clustered as synaptic‑associated cellular components; among these, disks large homolog 3 expression was markedly increased in rats with CIBP and was reversed by OXY treatment. Subsequent domain analysis of the differential proteins revealed several significant synaptic‑associated domains. In conclusion, synaptic‑associated cellular components may be critical in OXY‑induced analgesia in rats with CIBP.