Ultrasonography (US) is often the first-line imaging study used to evaluate women who present with acute or chronic pelvic pain. Detection of nongynecologic causes of pelvic pain is critical, because delay in diagnosis can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Evaluation of these entities requires a variety of transducers to achieve optimal imaging depth and changes in patient positioning. Specific imaging techniques (such as graded compression) may be required if bowel pathology is suspected. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is increasingly used to improve detection of certain entities. The US appearance of common gastrointestinal and urinary tract-related causes of pelvic pain is reviewed.