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Papers of the Week

2020 Jan

Bioorg Chem


Conjugation of 4-aminosalicylate with thiazolinones afforded non-cytotoxic potent in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory hybrids.


Abdu-Allah HHM, Abdelmoez AAB, Tarazi H, El-Shorbagi A-NA, El-Awady R
Bioorg Chem. 2020 Jan; 94:103378.
PMID: 31677858.


Eicosanoids like leukotrienes and prostaglandins that produced within the arachidonic acid cascade are involved in the pathogenesis of pain, acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. A promising approach for an effective anti-inflammatory therapy is the development of inhibitors targeting more than one enzyme of this cascade. Aiming to develop balanced COX/LOX inhibitors; 4-aminosalicylate based thiazolinones having different substituents at the 5th position of the 4-thiazolinone ring (2-22) were designed, synthesized, characterized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo for their anti-inflammatory activity. Most of the investigated compounds showed high COX-2 inhibitory potencies (IC 39-200 nM) with selectivity indexes (30-84). Two compounds, 19 and 21, (IC = 41 and 44 nM), are equipotent to celecoxib (IC = 49 nM), while compound 22 (IC = 39 nM) was the most potent. For 15-LOX, compounds 5, 11, 19, 21 and 22 revealed higher potency (IC 1.5-2.2 µM) than zileuton (IC 15 µM). Thus, compounds 5, 11, 19, 21 and 22 are potent dual inhibitors of COX-2 and 15-LOX. In vivo anti-inflammatory testing of these compounds revealed that, compounds 5 and 21 had an anti-inflammatory activity similar to indomethacin and celecoxib (% inhibition of oedema = 60 ± 9) and higher than diclofenac potassium (% inhibition = 52 ± 29), while compound 22 (% inhibition = 63 ± 5) was more active than the reference drugs. The results showed that the activity is controlled by the bulkiness and lipophilicity of the substituent at the 5th position. The cytotoxicity results revealed that all compounds are not cytotoxic, additionally, in an experimental model of ulcerogenic effect, the most active compounds 21 and 22 showed better safety profile than indomethacin. Further, at the active sites of the COX-1, COX-2 and 15-LOX co-crystal, 19, 21, and 22 showed high binding forces in free binding energy study, which is consistent with in vitro and in vivo results. In conclusion, these compounds are good candidates for further biological investigation as potential anti-inflammatory drugs with dual balanced inhibition of COX and 15-LOX and good safety profile.