Canine studies of spontaneous osteoarthritis (OA) pain add valuable data supporting drug treatment mechanisms that may translate to humans. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled study was conducted in client-owned dogs with moderate OA pain to evaluate efficacy of LYA, an inhibitor of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES1), an EP4 antagonist (LYB), and carprofen, versus placebo. Of 255 dogs screened, 163 were randomized (placebo/LYA/LYB/carprofen: = 43/39/42/39) and 158 completed treatment. Efficacy versus placebo was assessed using Bayesian mixed-effect model for repeated measure analyses of the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) pain interference score (PIS; primary endpoint), pain severity score, and overall impression, as well as the Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD) mobility score. The posterior probability that the difference to placebo was <0 at week 2 was 80% for LYA and 54% for LYB for CBPI PIS (both <95% predefined threshold). For secondary endpoints, the posterior probability that the difference to placebo was <0 at week 2 ranged from 89 to 96% for LYA and from 56 to 89% for LYB. The posterior probabilities comparing carprofen to placebo groups were ≥90% for all efficacy endpoints. The proportion of dogs with one or more adverse event was not significantly different from placebo (32.6%) for LYA (35.9%) or carprofen (25.6%), but the rate for LYB (59.5%) was higher versus placebo ( = 0.017). LYA treatment demonstrated consistent improvement in all efficacy measures, suggesting that inhibition of mPGES1 may be an effective treatment for chronic pain associated with OA.