Chronic postsurgical neuropathic pain (CPSNP) is frequent. While prevalence varies considerably according to type of operation and means of evaluation, it can reach 37% following breast surgery. Identification of risk factors related to the procedure and to the patient and taking into account the development of new, minimally invasive surgical techniques is increasingly nerve-sparing and reduces the likelihood of injury. CPSNP diagnosis in daily practice is facilitated by simple and quickly usable tools such as the NP4 4-question test. Management is based on pharmacological (analgesics, antiepileptics, antidepressants, local anesthetics) and non-pharmacological (kinesitherapy, neurostimulation, psychotherapy) approaches. In light of the present review of the literature, the authors, who constitute an expert group specialized in pain management, anesthesia and surgery, express their support for topical treatments (lidocaine, capsaicin) in treatment of localized postsurgical neuropathic pain in adults.