Neuropathic pain (NP) is associated with profound gene expression alterations within the nociceptive system. DNA mechanisms, such as epigenetic remodeling and repair pathways have been implicated in NP. Here we have used a rat model of peripheral nerve injury to study the effect of a recently developed RARβ agonist, C286, currently under clinical research, in NP. A 4-week treatment initiated 2 days after the injury normalized pain sensation. Genome-wide and pathway enrichment analysis showed that multiple mechanisms persistently altered in the spinal cord were restored to preinjury levels by the agonist. Concomitant upregulation of DNA repair proteins, ATM and BRCA1, the latter being required for C286-mediated pain modulation, suggests that early DNA repair may be important to prevent phenotypic epigenetic imprints in NP. Thus, C286 is a promising drug candidate for neuropathic pain and DNA repair mechanisms may be useful therapeutic targets to explore.