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Papers of the Week

Papers: 12 Oct 2019 - 18 Oct 2019

Animal Studies


Front Mol Neurosci


TIMP-1 Attenuates the Development of Inflammatory Pain Through MMP-Dependent and Receptor-Mediated Cell Signaling Mechanisms.


Knight BE, Kozlowski N, Havelin J, King T, Crocker SJ, Young EE, Baumbauer KM
Front Mol Neurosci. 2019; 12:220.
PMID: 31616247.


Unresolved inflammation is a significant predictor for developing chronic pain, and targeting the mechanisms underlying inflammation offers opportunities for therapeutic intervention. During inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity contributes to tissue remodeling and inflammatory signaling, and is regulated by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). TIMP-1 and -2 have known roles in pain, but only in the context of MMP inhibition. However, TIMP-1 also has receptor-mediated cell signaling functions that are not well understood. Here, we examined how TIMP-1-dependent cell signaling impacts inflammatory hypersensitivity and ongoing pain. We found that hindpaw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) increased cutaneous TIMP-1 expression that peaked prior to development of mechanical hypersensitivity, suggesting that TIMP-1 inhibits the development of inflammatory hypersensitivity. To examine this possibility, we injected TIMP-1 knockout (T1KO) mice with CFA and found that T1KO mice exhibited rapid onset thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity at the site of inflammation that was absent or attenuated in WT controls. We also found that T1KO mice exhibited hypersensitivity in adjacent tissues innervated by different sets of afferents, as well as skin contralateral to the site of inflammation. Replacement of recombinant murine (rm)TIMP-1 alleviated hypersensitivity when administered at the site and time of inflammation. Administration of either the MMP inhibiting N-terminal or the cell signaling C-terminal domains recapitulated the antinociceptive effect of full-length rmTIMP-1, suggesting that rmTIMP-1inhibits hypersensitivity through MMP inhibition and receptor-mediated cell signaling. We also found that hypersensitivity was not due to genotype-specific differences in MMP-9 activity or expression, nor to differences in cytokine expression. Administration of rmTIMP-1 prevented mechanical hypersensitivity and ongoing pain in WT mice, collectively suggesting a novel role for TIMP-1 in the attenuation of inflammatory pain.