Recently, the role of CXCR2 in nociception has been noted. Our studies provide new evidence that the intrathecal administration of its CINC ligands (Cytokine-Induced Neutrophil Chemoattractant; CXCL1-3) induces pain-like behavior in naïve mice, and the effect occurring shortly after administration is associated with the neural location of CXCR2, as confirmed by immunofluorescence. RT-qPCR analysis showed, for the first time, raised levels of spinal CXCR2 after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats. Originally, on day 2, we detected escalated levels of the spinal mRNA of all CINCs associated with enhancement of the protein level of CXCL3 lasting until day 7. Intrathecal administration of CXCL3 neutralizing antibody diminished neuropathic pain on day 7 after CCI. Interestingly, CXCL3 is produced in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglial, but not astroglial, primary cell cultures. We present the first evidence that chronic intrathecal administrations of the selective CXCR2 antagonist, NVP CXCR2 20, attenuate neuropathic pain symptoms and CXCL3 expression after CCI. Moreover, in naïve mice, this antagonist prevented CXCL3-induced hypersensitivity. However, NVP CXCR2 20 did not diminish glial activation, thus not enhancing morphine/buprenorphine analgesia. These results provide novel insight into the crucial role of CXCR2 in neuropathy based on CXCL3 modulation, which may become a potential therapeutic target in pain treatment.