Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a commonly used procedure in the management of pancreatic and biliary diseases. Acute pancreatitis is the most common complication following ERCP. Among many medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were subject of numerous trials concerning post ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) prophylaxis. By inhibiting phospholipase A2, these drugs could intervene in the pathogenesis of the disease therefore limiting its occurrence. The use of some rectal NSAIDs agents was shown, to be advantageous in preventing this complication but there were not enough data on ketoprofen. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of rectal ketoprofen prophylactic administration in reducing the risk of PEP.