Epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of cardiovascular events in migraineurs. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this observation remain largely unknown. Recent genetic and epidemiologic studies suggest, that atherosclerosis might be the overlapping pathophysiological mechanism in migraine and coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the increased cardiovascular risk in migraineurs is attributed to an increased coronary artery calcification. For this the coronary artery calcium score was assessed by computed tomography of the heart in 1.437 patients of which 337 were migraineurs. All patients had a similar cardiovascular risk profile, so that the risk for coronary calcifications could be considered similar between migraineurs and non-migraineurs. The results showed no significant differences in the amount of coronary calcifications in patients with or without migraine. This suggests that a more pronounced coronary artery calcification, as a surrogate marker of coronary atherosclerosis, does not underlie the increased cardiovascular risk in migraineurs. A distinct common pathophysiological mechanism in migraine and coronary heart disease such as endothelial dysfunction or vasospasm should be discussed instead. However, it has to be considered, that the coronary artery calcification score does not indicate the total risk of atherosclerotic changes in the coronary arteries.