Occupational exposure to mechanical vibration can produce the Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS), whose most disabling symptom is persistent muscle pain. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology of HAVS pain is still poorly understood, precluding the development of mechanism-based therapies. Since interleukin 33 (IL-33) is essential for inflammation and recovery that follows skeletal muscle injury, we explored its role in muscle pain in a model of HAVS, in adult male rats. Concomitant to mechanical hyperalgesia, an increase in IL-33 in the ipsilateral gastrocnemius muscle was observed 24 h after vibration. A similar hyperalgesia was produced by intramuscular injection of recombinant rat IL-33 (rrIL-33, 10-300 ng). Intrathecal administration of an oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to IL-33R/ST2 mRNA decreased the expression of ST2 in DRG and attenuated both rrIL-33 and vibration-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Together these data support the suggestion that IL-33 plays a central role in vibration-induced muscle pain by action, at least in part, on skeletal muscle nociceptors. PERSPECTIVE: Our findings provide evidence of the contribution of IL-33, acting on its canonical receptor, in nociceptors, to muscle pain induced by ergonomic vibration. This suggests that targeting IL-33/ST2 signaling may be a useful strategy for the treatment of muscle pain in hand-arm vibration syndrome.