BACKGROUND This study aimed to identify NOTCH3 mutations and describe the genetic and clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging results in 11 unrelated patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) from Henan province in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS NOTCH3 was directly sequenced in 11 unrelated patients of Chinese descent. The clinical presentations and magnetic resonance imaging features were retrospectively analyzed in the 11 index patients with a definite diagnosis. RESULTS Seven different mutations were identified in 11 unrelated patients, including 4 novel mutations (p.P167S, p.P652S, p.C709R, and p.R1100H) in China and 3 reported mutations (p.C117R, p.R578C, and p.R607C). Four novel mutations (p.P167S, p.P652S, p.C709R, and p.R1100H) were predicted to be probably pathogenic using an online pathogenicity prediction program through comprehensive analysis. Clinical presentations in symptomatic patients included stroke, cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances, and migraine. Multiple lacunars infarcts and leukoaraiosis were detected on MRI in most symptomatic patients, while white-matter lesions were identified in the temporal pole or the external capsule in all affected patients. CONCLUSIONS The mutation spectrum of CADASIL patients from Henan province in China displayed some differences from that of those reported previously. DNA sequencing was used to diagnose all 11 patients as having CADASIL, and we found 4 novel mutations. The present results further contribute to the enrichment of NOTCH3 mutation databases.