The present study aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that are involved in neuropathic pain and predict their corresponding roles in the pathogenesis and development process of neuropathic pain. The rat model of neuropathic pain caused by spared nerve injury (SNI) was established in Sprague-Dawley male rats, followed by small RNA sequencing of the L3-L6 dorsal root ganglion. Real-time PCR was performed to validate the differently expressed miRNAs. Functional verification was performed by intrathecally injecting the animals with miRNA agomir. A total of 72 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in the SNI rats, including 33 upregulated and 39 downregulated miRNAs. The results of qPCR further verified the expression levels of rno-miR-6215 (P=0.015), rno-miR-1224 (P=0.030), rno-miR-1249 (P=0.038), and rno-miR-488-3p (P=0.048), which were all significantly downregulated in the SNI rats compared to the control ones. The majority of differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with phosphorylation, intracellular signal transduction, and cell death. Target prediction, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs targeted genes that are related to axon guidance, focal adhesion, and Ras and Wnt signaling pathways. Moreover, miR-1224 agomir significantly alleviated SNI-induced neuropathic pain. The current findings provide new insights into the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain.