Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common severe genetic diseases around the world. A majority of SCD patients experience intense pain, leading to hospitalization, and poor quality of life. Opioids form the bedrock of pain management, but their long-term use is associated with severe side effects including hyperalgesia, tolerance and addiction. Recently, excellent research has shown some new potential mechanisms that underlie SCD-associated pain. This review focused on how transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, endothelin-1/ endothelin type A receptor, and cannabinoid receptors contributed to the pathophysiology of SCD-associated pain. Understanding these mechanisms may open a new avenue in managing SCD-associated pain and improving quality of life for SCD patients.