Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy (CNO) is one of the most devastating complications of neuropathy in patients with diabetes. Establishing diagnosis of CNO is difficult, due to the lack of clear clinical and radiological diagnostic criteria. Diagnosis is even more difficult when there is atypical and bilateral clinical presentation. Since CNO may lead to foot deformity, lower-extremity amputation and significant decrements in quality of life, it must be detected and treated without delay. Treatment focuses mainly on interruption of the inflammatory process and relief from pain using feet offloading devices. In more severe cases, surgical intervention may be needed. Additionally, the use of custom-made insoles and custom-made orthopaedic shoes is mandatory.