Inguinal hernia is the most frequently diagnosed hernia and during their lifetime one third of males are diagnosed with an inguinal hernia. The age distribution is bimodal with the highest incidence in childhood and after 50 years of age. Diagnosis is usually reached through clinical examination of a lump in the inguinal region although some patients can present with intestinal obstruction. Inguinal hernia repair is the only definitive treatment and is one of the most common surgical procedures performed. It is usually performed as an elective procedure in local, spinal or general anasthesia. The repair constitutes of reinforcing the posterior wall of the inguinal canal, often using a polypropylene mesh; either via an open anterior approach or posteriorly from within the abdomen with laparoscopy. The most common complications following a hernia repair are recurrent hernia and chronic -discomfort but recurrence rates have improved with the use of mesh and laparoscopic techniques. This evidence based review describes the -epidemiology and etiology of inguinal hernia together with the most common surgical procedures; focusing on recent innovations.