Although intravenous sedation and analgesia have been widely used as a first choice to relieve pain during treatment of dysfunctional hemodialysis fistulas by interventional radiology, the sedoanalgesic drugs have a considerable risk of respiratory depression, especially in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we compared the utility and efficiency of ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block versus sedoanalgesia for the prevention of pain during endovascular treatment of dysfunctional hemodialysis fistulas MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were randomized into two groups: ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block (n = 34) or sedoanalgesia group (n = 34). A visual analogue scale from no pain (= 0) to worst pain possible (= 10) was used to assess the pain intensity. Patient and operator satisfaction were graded from 0 to 2: 0, not satisfied at all; 1, partially satisfied; 2, satisfied (very well or complete satisfaction). Both groups were compared in terms of pain scores, patient and operator satisfaction as well as complications.