Receptor-type ion channels are critical for detection of noxious stimuli in primary sensory neurons. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediate pain sensations and promote a variety of neuronal signals that elicit secondary neural functions (such as calcitonin gene-related peptide [CGRP] secretion), which are important for physiological functions throughout the body. In this review, we focus on the involvement of TRP channels in sensing acute pain, inflammatory pain, headache, migraine, pain due to fungal infections, and osteo-inflammation. Furthermore, action potentials mediated via interactions between TRP channels and the chloride channel, anoctamin 1 (ANO1), can also generate strong pain sensations in primary sensory neurons. Thus, we also discuss mechanisms that enhance neuronal excitation and are dependent on ANO1, and consider modulation of pain sensation from the perspective of both cation and anion dynamics.