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Papers of the Week

2019 Apr 19

J Vis Exp


A New Best Practice for Validating Tail Vein Injections in Rat with Near-infrared-Labeled Agents.


Saleem M, Stevens AM, Deal B, Liu L, Janjic J, Pollock JA
J Vis Exp. 2019 Apr 19(146).
PMID: 31058897.


Intravenous (IV) administration of agents into the tail vein of rats can be both difficult and inconsistent. Optimizing tail vein injections is a key part of many experimental procedures where reagents need to be introduced directly into the bloodstream. Unwittingly, the injection can be subcutaneous, possibly altering the scientific outcomes. Utilizing a nanoemulsion-based biological probe with an incorporated near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye, this method offers the capability of imaging a successful tail vein injection in vivo. With the use of a NIRF imager, images are taken before and after the injection of the agent. An acceptable IV injection is then qualitatively or quantitatively determined based on the intensity of the NIRF signal at the site of injection.