CGRP has long been suspected as a mediator of arthritis pain, although evidence that CGRP directly mediates human musculoskeletal pain remains circumstantial. This chapter describes in depth the evidence surrounding CGRP's association with pain in musculoskeletal disorders and also summarises evidence for CGRP being a direct cause of pain in other conditions. CGRP-immunoreactive nerves are present in musculoskeletal tissues, and CGRP expression is altered in musculoskeletal pain. CGRP modulates musculoskeletal pain through actions both in the periphery and central nervous system. Human observational studies, research on animal arthritis models and the few reported randomised controlled trials in humans of treatments that target CGRP provide the context of CGRP as a possible pain biomarker or mediator in conditions other than migraine.