Gene variants may contribute to individual differences in the experience of pain and the efficacy and reward of treatments. We explored gene variation in opioid-naïve and opioid-consuming patients undergoing elective lower extremity total joint replacement. We focused on 3 gene pathways including prostaglandin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic reward, and hepatic metabolism pathways. We report that for genes with possible or probable deleterious impact in these 3 pathways, opioid consumers had more gene variants than opioid-naïve patients (median 3 vs 1, P = .0092). We conclude that chronic opiate users may have genetic susceptibility to altered responses in reward/dependency and pain/inflammation pathways.