To evaluate the prognostic factors for cesarean section outcome of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI and Wanfang database were searched. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted data, and evaluated the risk of bias of included studies. For pooled data with factors of perioperative outcome, the RevMan software was used for data translation and meta-analysis. The result is shown intuitively with the bubble diagram of evidence mapping by Excel 2016. We included 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the meta-analysis. Twelve RCTs with 1,390 patients were included in the systematic review. The results show that the perioperative blood glucose management regimens, preoperative fasting and water deprivation, anesthesia regimens, postoperative fluid regimens, postoperative analgesia regimens, postoperative wound care regimens, psychological interventions, different dosing regimens for antibiotics, and obesity may affect the cesarean section outcome of diabetic mothers and newborns. The evidence for all the outcomes was low quality. Many prognostic factors have shown significant association with postoperative outcomes of cesarean section. More clinical research evidence with high-quality is needed.