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Papers of the Week

2019 May-Jun

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl



Gas in the kidney in asymptomatic urinary tract infections in a patient with severe vesicoureteral reflex.


Pakkyara A, Jha A, Al Salmi I, Mohammed E, Jothi V, Al Lawati S, Al Maamari S, Faisal FAM
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2019 May-Jun; 30(3):706-709.
PMID: 31249237.


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease in Oman as in rest of Gulf Cooperation Council where metabolic syndrome is of high prevalence. DM is a foremost risk factor for urinary tract infections (UTIs). It is also linked to more complicated infections such as emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN), emphysematous pyelitis (EP), renal/perirenal abscess, emphysematous cystitis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and renal papillary necrosis. The diagnosis of these cases is frequently delayed because the clinical manifestations are generic and not different from the typical triad of upper UTI, which include fever, flank pain, and pyuria. A middle-aged female with DM and chronic kidney disease stage IV was admitted with recurrent UTI with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. At presentation, she was afebrile, clinically stable, had no flank pain and there was no leukocytosis. Laboratory test for C- reactive protein done twice and was only mildly elevated at 7 and 11 mg/dL. A computed tomography scan of kidney-ureter-bladder (CT-KUB) was recommended and reported as "no KUB stone but small atrophic left kidney with dilatation of the pelvicalycial system and ureter and the presence of air in the collecting system suggestive of EP." Thus, commonly associated with DM, especially in females, debilitated immune-deficient individuals, and patients harboring obstructed urinary system with infective nidus. Air in the kidney is not always due to EPN. UTI with a gas-producing organism can ascend to the kidney in the presence of vesicoureteral reflux.