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Papers of the Week

Papers: 15 Jun 2019 - 21 Jun 2019

Animal Studies, Pharmacology/Drug Development


Front Pharmacol


Pharmaceutical Effects of Inhibiting the Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in Canine Osteoarthritis.


McReynolds CB, Hwang S H, Yang J, Wan D, Wagner K, Morisseau C, Li D, Schmidt WK, Hammock BD
Front Pharmacol. 2019; 10:533.
PMID: 31214021.


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that causes pain and bone deterioration driven by an increase in prostaglandins (PGs) and inflammatory cytokines. Current treatments focus on inhibiting prostaglandin production, a pro-inflammatory lipid metabolite, with NSAID drugs; however, other lipid signaling targets could provide safer and more effective treatment strategies. Epoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that are rapidly metabolized by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) into corresponding vicinal diols. Interestingly, diol levels are increased in the synovial fluid of humans with OA, warranting further research on the biological role of this lipid pathway in the progression of OA. sEH inhibitors (sEHI) stabilize these biologically active, anti-inflammatory lipid epoxides, resulting in analgesia in both neuropathic, and inflammatory pain conditions. Most experimental studies testing the analgesic effects of sEH inhibitors have used experimental rodent models, which do not completely represent the complex etiology of painful diseases. Here, we tested the efficacy of sEHI in aged dogs with natural arthritis to provide a better representation of the clinical manifestations of pain. Two sEHI were administered orally, once daily for 5 days to dogs with naturally occurring arthritis to assess efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Blinded technicians recorded the behavior of the arthritic dogs based on pre-determined criteria to assess pain and function. After 5 days, EC1728 significantly reduced pain at a dose of 5 mg/kg compared to vehicle controls. Pharmacokinetic evaluation showed concentrations exceeding the enzyme potency in both plasma and synovial fluid. data showed that epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EETs), epoxide metabolites of arachidonic acid, decreased inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, and reduced cytotoxicity in canine chondrocytes challenged with IL1β to simulate an arthritic environment. These results provide the first example of altering lipid epoxides as a therapeutic target for OA potentially acting by protecting chondrocytes from inflammatory induced cytotoxicity. Considering the challenges and high variability of naturally occurring disease in aged dogs, these data provide initial proof of concept justification that inhibiting the sEH is a non-NSAID, non-opioid, disease altering strategy for treating OA, and warrants further investigation.