Chronic low back pain (LBP) ranks among the most common reasons for patient visits to healthcare providers. Drug treatments often provide only partial pain relief and are associated with considerable side-effects. J-2156 [(1'S,2S)-4amino-N-(1'-carbamoyl-2'-phenylethyl)-2-(4"-methyl-1"-naphthalenesulfonylamino)butanamide] is an agonist that binds with nanomolar affinity to the rat and human somatostatin receptor type 4 (SST receptor). Hence, our aim was to assess the efficacy of J-2156 for relief of chronic mechanical LBP in a rat model. Male Sprague Dawley rats were anaesthetised and their lumbar L4/L5 and L5/L6 intervertebral discs (IVDs) were punctured (0.5 mm outer diameter, 2 mm-deep) 10 times per disc. Sham-rats underwent similar surgery, but without disc puncture. For LBP-rats, noxious pressure hyperalgesia developed in the lumbar axial deep tissues from day 7 to day 21 post-surgery, which was maintained until study completion. Importantly, mechanical hyperalgesia did not develop in the lumbar axial deep tissues of sham-rats. In LBP-rats, single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of J-2156 (3, 10, 30 mg kg) alleviated primary and secondary hyperalgesia in the lumbar axial deep tissues at L4/L5 and L1, respectively. This was accompanied by a reduction in the otherwise augmented lumbar (L4-L6) dorsal root ganglia expression levels of the pro-nociceptive mediators: phosphorylated p38 (pp38) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated p44/p42 MAPK and a reduction in pp38 MAPK in the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. The SST receptor is worthy of further investigation as a target for discovery of novel analgesics for the relief of chronic LBP.