Transmission of pain signals from primary sensory neurons to secondary neurons of the central nervous system is critically dependent on presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels. Calcium channel-binding domain 3 (CBD3), derived from the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), is a peptide aptamer that is effective in blocking N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca2.2) activity. We previously reported that recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated restricted expression of CBD3 affixed to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in primary sensory neurons prevents the development of cutaneous mechanical hypersensitivity in a rat neuropathic pain model. In this study, we tested whether this strategy is effective in treating established pain. We constructed AAV6-EGFP-CBD3A6K (AAV6-CBD3A6K) expressing a fluorescent CBD3A6K (replacing A to K at position 6 of CBD3 peptide), which is an optimized variant of the parental CBD3 peptide that is a more potent blocker of Ca2.2. Delivery of AAV6-CBD3A6K into lumbar (L) 4 and 5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rats 2 weeks following tibial nerve injury (TNI) induced transgene expression in neurons of these DRG and their axonal projections, accompanied by attenuation of pain behavior. We additionally observed that the increased Ca2.2α1b immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral spinal cord dorsal horn and DRG following TNI was significantly normalized by AAV6-CBD3A6K treatment. Finally, the increased neuronal activity in the ipsilateral dorsal horn that developed after TNI was reduced by AAV6-CBD3A6K treatment. Collectively, these results indicate that DRG-restricted AAV6 delivery of CBD3A6K is an effective analgesic molecular strategy for the treatment of established neuropathic pain.