Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and extracorporeal life support are increasingly used for treating various forms of shock, lung failure, protected interventions and life support including resuscitation. Most patients on ECMO are affected by a systemic inflammatory response caused by the underlying disease as well as the ECMO support itself, which contributes to vasoplegia, multi-organ failure, deterioration and death. Unfortunately, effective strategies for control of inflammation and related organ failure and shock on ECMO are lacking. Recently, a new polystyrene-based device for hemoadsorption, which aims to reduce excessive levels of inflammatory molecules such as interleukins, cytokines as well as damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, has become available. Here we summarize the rationale, available data and technical aspects of polystyrene-based hemoadsorption during ECMO support, and give recommendations based on existing experience.